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09-Sep-2016 14:26

TMS and t DCS are strategies with a relative benign profile of side effects; however, while TMS effects are comparable to antidepressant drugs for treating MDD; further research is needed to establish the role of t DCS.

DBS and VNS are invasive strategies with a possible role in treatment-resistant depression.

Although the field of neuromodulation with electromagnetic stimulation is not new - dating back to the beginning of the last century with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), followed by the invasive techniques such as deep brain stimulation in the 1960s - it recently attracted further interest due to development of novel methods of noninvasive brain stimulation such as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (r TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (t DCS).

RESULTS: The state-of-art of neuromodulation techniques was reviewed and discussed in four sections: [1] epidemiology and pathophysiology of MDD; [2] a comprehensive overview of the neuromodulation techniques; [3] using neuromodulation techniques in MDD associated with non-psychiatric conditions; [4] the main challenges of neuromodulation research and alternatives to overcome them.

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In summary, MDD is a chronic and incapacitating condition with a high prevalence; therefore clinicians should consider all the treatment options including invasive and non-invasive neuromodulation approaches.

O uso de técnicas de neuromodulação para o tratamento do transtorno depressivo maior (TDM) tem despertado um renovado interesse nos últimos anos com o desenvolvimento de outras intervenções não-farmacólogicas além da eletroconvulsoterapia (ECT), como a estimulação magnética transcraniana (EMT), a estimulação transcraniana por corrente continua (ETCC), a estimulação cerebral profunda (DBS) e a estimulação de nervo vago (VNS).

Laboratory of Neuromodulation, Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital, Harvard Medical School and Berenson-Allen Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USAThe use of neuromodulation as a treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD) has recently attracted renewed interest due to development of other non-pharmacological therapies besides electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), transcranial direct current stimulation (t DCS), deep brain stimulation (DBS), and vagus nerve stimulation (VNS).

METHOD: We convened a working group of researchers to discuss the updates and key challenges of neuromodulation use for the treatment of MDD.

MÉTODO: Nós organizamos um grupo de trabalho com vários pesquisadores para discutir os avanços recentes e os principais desafios para o uso da neuromodulação no tratamento do TDM.RESULTADOS: O estado-da-arte da neuromodulação foi revisado e discutido em quatro seções: [1] epidemiologia e fisiopatologia do TDM; [2] uma revisão das técnicas de neuromodulação; [3] o uso das técnicas de neuromodulação na depressão que ocorre associada ou em virtude de condições não-psiquiátricas; [4] os principais desafios da pesquisa na neuromodulação e alternativas para superá-los.



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