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Before the revolution Judaism was regarded as an ethnicity but not a religious identity and and most of Russia's Jews were confined to rural settlements and endured constant persecution.
The recent revitalization of religious identification and practice has been swift and strong among adherents of Orthodoxy, Islam, Buddhism, Protestantism, Catholicism, and Judaism, although many Jews have emigrated.
Indigenous shamanism is also being revived among many Siberian and Mongolian peoples.
Moscow is a center of Islam in Russia, with many active mosques and organizations to serve the one to two million Muslims in Moscow.
There are significant populations in many other large cities as well.
There has also been an explosion of alternative and New Age spiritual movements, publications, and practitioners.Most of ethnic Russians identify themselves as Orthodox Christians, although the vast majority are not regular churchgoers Islam has been important throughout Russian history.Russian Orthodox Christianity is the largest religion in Russia since it was adopted in the 9th century AD and is professed by about 75% of Russians who consider themselves religious believers.The "official" church in Russian Federation is Russian Orthodox Church of Moscow Eparchy, which is supported by the official government.
The state has returned thousands of churches, mosques, and temples as well as icons and other religious objects appropriated during the Soviet period to their respective communities.Monasteries and religious schools and training centers for all faiths have sprung up or reopened, and the number of religious practitioners has more than doubled since the 1970s.