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The Paul's Cross preachers of the 1620's and 1630's failed to come to grips with the issues of the day as their Elizabethan predecessors had done not because of any decline in their powers but because the holders of real power in the realm, the gentry, including tlie London Corporation, were at odds with the executive in state and church whose deeds and opinions the preachers were obliged to justify.

The efficacy of this pulpit as an organ of authoritative persuasion declined under the Stuarts, particularly after the crisis of the negotiations for the Spanish match in 1620-22, and Laud relied more upon the High Commission Court than upon any pulpit.

They opposed the Pauline doctrine of obedience to the pretensions of the common lawyers and the squires of the House of Com- mons exactly as the Reformers had opposed the same arguments to the claims of the Pilgrims of Grace or the Devonshire rebels. Throughout the period, from the fulminations of Latimer and Lever against the rapacity of the "new men" in the days of Edward VI to the elaborate polemics against usury and fraudulent dealing by Thomas Adams and Charles Richardson in the second decade of the seventeenth century, the preachers set forth almost without alteration the ideal of the Christian society in which no man is outright owner of his goods, but holds them in stewardship from God for the benefit of "the common state." Those of them who admitted the Puritan ideal of godly industry hedged it about with strict safeguards and diminished it by pious qualifications. In a bay of the upper gallery sits James, with the Cueen and the Prince of 'ales: an i{3) extraordinary error, for Qaeaa died In 1619. ONDOH 0.-7E SOOPOU^IDSS TO'.i RDES REPAIR OP ■ TT TIKDO , EG. *^e inhibited preaching on "the king's matters" v/hich tended to tne dlandor of CL^tholic doctrine.

The preachers admitted no compromise with the revolutionary political and social ideas which changed the face of England in the seventeenth century. Chapter VII, The Preachers' Vision of the .-ainst the buttress at the end of what is presunably the presbytery, and through this turret access is presumably gained to the gallery, and Indeed to its roof, for, perched precariously upon the roof, with their backs to one of the great windows, stand twelra choir-boys, ready to assist in the congregational singing which often was a part of these serrices, or perhaps to sing some special music composed for such an important occasion.

I CO THE PAUL'S CROSS SERMONS, 153'+-16U-1 - AN INTRODUCTORY SURVEY - Millar Mac Lure A thesis submitted in conformity with the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the University of Toronto 19^9 THE PAUL'S CR03S SEmi OKS, 1534-16411 AN Iimi ODUGTOiiy Smi YBY Millar Mac lure 4S7G27 13. 4-3 A Thesis submitted in coni'omiity with tho requirements for the degree of uoct or of Hiiloaophy in the University of Xororrto. 44 HOSKIN AVENUE THE PAUL'S CROSS SERMONS, 1534-1641: AN INTRODUCTORy SURVEY COMMITTEE VS CHARGE Professor F. The solidity of Elizabeth's achievements in state and church is accordingly reflected in the sermons at Paul's Cross, even during the dangerous days of the Essex rebellion. Certainly the cross of Paul's, before 1449, the e-Dproiimate date of its rebuilding by Bishop Kempe, was not a pulpit cross, but something like the "Merest" cross in Edinburgh, a pillar raised upon e flight of steps, where officials might stand, rnper cracea , as the significant phrase goes, to make proclama- 7 tions.

1949 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO SCHOOL OF GRADUATE STUDIES PROGRAMME OF THE FINAL ORAL EXAMINATION FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY of MILLAR Mac LURE FRIDAY, MAY 27th, 1949 AT 10 :. Divided voices begin to be heard there even during the reign of James I, and by the 1630's the Arminian Royalists who defended the Laudian church and prerogative government from that pulpit were reduceil to helpless invectives against murmuring and disobedience. Althoa^ some historians find evidence of assemblies at Paul'a Cross from the twelfth century,® the earliest docu'-ientary evidence of Its use dates from 1241, when Henry III met the citizens of London there to consult with them about a projected visit to Gascony in connection Q with the French war. ome evidence to show that Paul's churchyard or eross was anciently a place for popular assemblies.

The principles of Richard Hooker were defended at Paul's Cross against the assaults of the Puritan theorists by two of his ablest disciples, John Howson and John Spenser.

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The measure of success which attended the promul- gation of official views from that pulpit during political and ecclesiastical crises is therefore an index of the unity of the realm. it ny very first £n.tremce upon the Task, an in- tricate Mfficulty did very auch discourage me, i''or I lighted upon great i'iles and Heaps of rapors and Writings of all 30rt3, ro laonably well dige jted indeodi in respect of the Times, but in regard of the ''ariety of the /irguaents, very auch confused* Can^en, Preface to Elizabeth. The cross probebly antedates tha erection of a church, and was perhaps originally set up ot the entrance of en ancient burial-place, to remind the nassers- by to pray for the dead there Interred. A 3onnon on Cjaneo .-■ccca.vei-uat et enont r.loria ijoi.

The Paul's Cross sermons were addressed formally to all estates of the realm ; the auditory was all England in a little room. Priestley Minor Subjects: English Language — Professor H. (Queen's L'niversity) English History — Professor D. Mc Dougall THS PAUL'S CROSS Siil MOKS, 1534-1641 J AN INTRODUCTORY SUi^ff EY But ! It la now proper, by a survey of certain antiquities, to account for these details here described, and others not here included. "The very antiquity of which cross Is to me unimonn." How long 8 cr038 stood upon this spot is unknown.

"By yeomen's sons," said Latimer, "the faith of Christ is and hath been maintained chiefly." In all their protests against capitalistic exploitation and against excess in apparel, in eating and drinking, in building of great mansions and expensive theatres, the preachers set up as the ideal the sturdy English yeoman of bygone days, now supplanted by the landless labourer and the frivolous gentleman. In the lower gallery sit the Idayor and Aldermen In their robes of office; the Mayor beers his ceremonial sword, as this -^ce a notable occasion, with a procession and mach pepeontry. There Is a solid group of what are presumably the crcfts In their liveries, with a sprinkling of fine rentlenan and citizens' wires. To the left, two grooms hold the horaes of pentlenen in the congregation, and a mounting- block is to be seen placed thete for their greater conventoncs B.

To a man the Paul's Cross preachers condemned the spoliation of their Establishment by impropri- ations and sacrilege, lamented the sad state of a poverty-stricken and despised ministry, and inveighed bitterly against the corruption of simony. Chapter III* Tne Jstabllshments ^liz FDibeth 145* Chaptor IV. Ciiapter V, The Gathering -)tona: James I, 1020-1625; Charles I, 1625-1641.. The rest of the upper gallery is filled with ladies, eccloslaytlcs and ne-nbers of the Council. The main body of the audience (unrealistically tiny) l^ seated on forms in soniethlng like a •'garland or ring", as Bishop King termed It during his senaon.

The majority of the Paul's Cross preachers between 15 were representatives of a solid "Low Church" centre, Calvinist in doctrine though conforming willingly to the Anglican discipline. Beside him another gentleman has doffed his hat, but because he is engaged In sweet converse with a lady. As the Reformers followed in the footsteps of the preaching friars, so most of the Elizabethan and Jacobean preachers were disciples of the Reformers and rigid Calvinists. ^the fece of the gallery, over the heeds of the City officials, are placed three coats of anaa, perhaps of former benefactors who contributed to the bulldine, of the "house", a plaque reading B'Z^Tl Pa CIPICI, three plaques on the bay (these perhaps added by the (Ortist) VI V5 LA ROI(XI^, vrvi3 US HOT, TIVS LS Pfllli CJ:, and, beneath some scroll-work: Mr. The men in the audience wear their hats, except for on« reverent personage, who stands at the rear, hie eye fixed devoutly upon the preacher.