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Numerous studies using proper methodology and multiple genetic markers are presented, showing that Greeks cluster genetically with the rest of the Europeans, disproving Arnaiz-Villena's claims. History, as well as genetics, have been misused by Arnaiz-Villena's (and by extension Hajjej's) unprofessional statements and by their omissions and misquotations of scientific and historical citations. The abuse of scientific methods has earned Arnaiz-Villena's research a citation in a genetics textbook as an example of arbitrary interpretation and a deletion of one of his papers from the scientific literature. GENETICS Studies that Claim the Opposite Arnaiz-Villena Contradicts his Conclusions The Studies that Copied Arnaiz-Villena Arnaiz-Villena's Faulty Methodology i. In order to protect science from misuse, the related papers of Arnaiz-Villena et al. should also be retracted from the scientific literature. Single Locus Gene Studies are Inappropriate for Population Genetics ii. Allele and haplotype frequencies for HLA loci in various ethnic groups. Genetic diversity of HLA: Functional and medical implication. The Congolese Cluster with the Basques and Icelanders? Arnaiz-Villena's Confusing Charts Criticism and Rejection by the Scientific Community i. either examined subsets as mentioned above, or simply they made a mistake in reporting the data they examined. The Textbook that Calls it "Arbitrary Interpretation": ii. reported 85 samples from "Greeks (Aegean)" and 96 samples from "Greeks (Attica)" [1,4], taken from the same source. However, if the original source of the sample data (J. Lonjou [15]) is examined, it is unclear from what population of Greeks Hajjej ) did not include the Greek Pontii, Greek Pomaki, and Greek Cypriot samples from J. Lonjou [15] (66, 100, and 105 samples respectively) in their analyses, we are to surmise that each investigating group worked with a subset of the available samples from the original data archive of "Attica" and "mainland/island" Greeks [15]. The three Geneticists that Call it "Unreliable and Unacceptable": iii. (2011) [72] claimed that their studies confirm the relatedness of Greeks to various Sub-Saharan African populations. actually reported that they examined a subset of the Greeks and Sub-Saharans, which makes these studies slightly less powered to detect differences when compared to Arnaiz-Villena's studies. However, without proper explanation, there is a lack of transparency in the selection method and the potential for a selection bias can not be ignored.

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Christos Karatzios MD, Assistant Professor of Paediatrics and Costas Triantaphyllidis, Professor Emeritus of Genetics and Human Genetics co-wrote the genetics part, while Stephen Miller, Professor Emeritus of Classical Archaeology wrote the history part of the article. Christos Karatzios participated in the design of the article. Triantaphyllidis, e-mail: [email protected] Cosigner and author of the editorial: George P. published five papers making the claim of a Sub-Saharan African origin for Greeks. essentially published copies of Arnaiz-Villena's studies using the same methods, and data sets. World leading geneticists have rejected Arnaiz-Villena's methodology (the primary defect is that they relied on too few genetic markers to reliably compare populations). The Retraction The Article that Calls it "Scientific Hubris" Proper Methodology Faulty Methodology, Faulty Studies The Curious Omissions i. Same Data : These studies used the same sample data as Arnaiz-Villena et al. (2001b) [4], for Vardar Slavs, Greeks and Sub-Saharan Africans [1,4,13,14,72]. They reported examining 85 samples from "Greeks (Attica / Aegean)" [13,14] or "Greeks" [72], taken from J. Same Methodology [8] : All dendrograms and correspondence analysis graphs in the three Hajjej A. studies that claimed to confirm the relatedness of Greeks to various Sub-Saharan African populations, used a single gene marker (the HLA-DRB1). Here the Greeks appear to cluster with the Cretan Greeks, Vardar Slavs and Rimaibe (Sub-Saharans). Imanishi T, Akaza T, Kimura A, Tokunaga K, Gojobori T: Allele and haplotype frequencies for HLA and complement loci in various ethnic groups.

What counts is not what sounds plausible, not what we would like to believe, not what one or two witnesses claim, but only what is supported by hard evidence rigorously and skeptically examined. 2- University of California, Berkeley, California, USA. The application of molecular genetic approaches to the study of human evolution. Extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence. 3- Department of Genetics, Development and Molecular Biology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Macedonia, Greece.

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