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The Mongol invasion and a devastating earthquake in 1319 marked the beginning of the city’s decline.
Turkey Criteria: (ii)(iii)(iv) This site is located on a secluded plateau of northeast Turkey overlooking a ravine that forms a natural border with Armenia.This medieval city combines residential, religious and military structures, characteristic of a medieval urbanism built up over the centuries by Christian and then Muslim dynasties.The city flourished in the 10th and 11th centuries CE when it became the capital of the medieval Armenian kingdom of the Bagratides and profited from control of one branch of the Silk Road.Later, under Byzantine, Seljuk and Georgian sovereignty, it maintained its status as an important crossroads for merchant caravans.
Antigua and Barbuda Criteria: (ii)(iv) The site consists of a group of Georgian-style naval buildings and structures, set within a walled enclosure.
The natural environment of this side of the island of Antigua, with its deep, narrow bays surrounded by highlands, offered shelter from hurricanes and was ideal for repairing ships.