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This result is because of the quantum confinement effect, which decreased the electrical conductivity and the sluggish charge and proton transfer.The results presented here provide a new insight into the nanosize effect on the electrochemical performance to help design advanced energy storage devices.Recently, electrochemical energy storage devices, such as batteries and supercapacitors, have attracted great attention because of their many advantages compared with other power-source technologies.However, these devices could realize further gains in energy and power densities if the electrochemical performance of electrode materials is largely improved.(b) Relationship between the conductivity and the particle size of semiconductor materials.Reducing the dimensions of electrode materials down to the nanoscale level is an effective strategy to promote their electrochemical performance, which primarily benefits from the nanosize effect, that is, achieving a higher surface area and a shorter ion diffusion length.is the effective mass of a hole and h is Plank’s constant), the band gap increases as the particle size reduces.Laboratory of Clean Energy Chemistry and Materials, State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, China Correspondence: Professor X Yan, Laboratory of Clean Energy Chemistry and Materials, State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Tianshui road 18, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000, China.
In addition, while many nanomaterials used in electrochemical energy storage devices have been synthesized by various methods, a precisely size-controlled synthesis and a systematic study of size-dependent electrochemical performance for the electrode materials are rarely performed due to the difficulty in controlling the size, particularly when nm.These reasons have strongly motivated us to explore size-controlled electrode materials to elucidate the nanosize effect on the electrochemical properties for sub-10-nm materials for energy storage applications.(a) Relationship between the conductivity and band gap shift for semiconductor materials from Equation (2).