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,.y jiiv 'inadc III' nnr-Ziii/rs, tlir skins of 1)1i(T;i1oom, .itirtcliod tiiiilcr- iiciitli a frami' iiiadf nf willow H or dflicr lmii;:lis, ami siia|it'(i iicaiiv niinul, lilxc a tuli; wiiicli tlio wiiinan carrii'H on licr iii'iui from iicr w i;,'\vaiii to tin' iter's fi\'^i\ ami liavin;,' Hli'iipnl into it, stands in fiont, and propels it I'V drippin;,' lier paddle ,/ iirirnrii, a liy (lie side,' Ciif/iii's Aiiur. ii,, p, '»'01 nd tiniiriiiif il III /in; instead of padcjliii m s,' companitivo voealmiary. x Vfter this Mr Jones stayed among them for four months, during which time he conversed with them lamiliarlv in the Welsh laniruaye, "and did preach to them in the same language three times a week, -'" A certain Lieutenant Roberts states that in 1801 he mot an Indian chief at Washington, who spoke "Welsh "as fluently as if ho had been born and brought up in the vicinity of Snowdon." He said it was the language of his nation, the Asguaws, who Tuscavoi M th when ho 2'" As a from tlie Old Uritons). I(im:s, sou of iloiies, (it Uasatc'', near Ncwjioit, in the Coiintv 111 of M to the ciuinliv. March Huh, Ui S."i t)." (Iniflr iidiicl any \'(d •ii\s Mil'/., 1710. I "I lived ciglit hundred miles north-west of Philadelphia. 'ii i' n'|iorteil ly travellers in tiie west, tiiat on the l! Both ( I reeks and Americans bored their oars and sang the deeds of their ancestors; besides whicli, many words are connnon to both ])eoples.''"''' Liki' 2" S(Miitcvidco, in Brazil — who in 1827 discovcrod in one of lii.s ticlds a flat stone, upon which was en- graven a Greek inscription, which, as far as it was le Li'i Me, read as follows: "During the dominion of Alexander, the son of Philip, King of Macedon, in the sixty-third Olympiad, Ptoleniaios." Deposited heneatli the stone were found two ancient swords, a liehnet, and a shield. Ill listovv is lj\ c'oni- Pruvious c date of 3\vn, hut Christian i- teries which the priests alone comprehended, were tolerahlv well known to the educated classes; and the records were destroyed by Spanish fanati- ( ism, this general knowledge l)ecame the cliief source Avhiuce, tlirough the 'talk of the old men,' the earlier Avi'iteis drew their information. i, and the matter is not siitli- ciently important to n vrrant a repetition of all tiiat has heen said ahout i Torquemada and Clavi^xio state that he was dr. It is said that 111' was j)r"S(;nt in dis^-uise at the assend»ly when 'I'e- zi/diiioc was crowned, and when he heard a rewarm his hirtli/"* Ti'zo/.onioc was now very old and inrirni ; i'or si'Veial \i ais lie had heeii kept alive only hy means of arti- t'h ill warmth Jind the most careful attentions. The choice of the Tlatelulcas fell iiix^ii Quauhtlatohuatzin, a celebrated warrior, luit lut of loyal blood; and to this inferiority in the rank of lu i- luler is attributed, by some authors, the inlerior ])(»sition thereafter occupied by Tlatelulco, j)rcviously e(pud, if not superior, in power to her sister city." Such was the state of affairs in the early part of 1429, when the news of Nezahualcoyotl's success reached Azcapuzalco and ^lexico. At a jiivconcerted sij^nal, the lio-htinijc of a tire on Mt Qiiauhtepec, all the forces advanced — probably in ("Uioes, for it is not certain that causeways had yet lite Ti constructed —on the Te})ane(! 'I'he loi'd of Tlacoj)an, by a previous understanding^ with tilt" allies, opened that city to tbe invaders, thus Liiviu''- them a sure footin*'- in the country of tlu;ir f )(\ and in a few days Azcapuzalco was closely be- sicixed. The lalt*'r was huilt t.i ri'crive the relics of the ancient chief ^Fixcohuatl, 15 which had heen preserved for centuries in their toin- ]i! lie died diirin L;' the tanijiai^n, and was siieceeded hy Kieah, or (^nicah, and llunial- Ahaus was suceeediid (jn the throne of Atitlan at ahout tlie same time hy Chichiahtuh'i." Tlui reioii of Quicah is briefly disposed of hy Juai- ros a, i '' 's: "lie ascended the throne at ani.ituic 't Vj;o, ano- litical

lan had been faithfully t'Xtcutcd, I thorouniily br- lirvcd. Suhdivision of the Sulijeiu't/alcoal I ;it Tollan Kx- ccsses of iluemac II., or Teciiancalt/in Xocliill, the Kinj^'s Mistrc-is I'ullillmcnt of the I'ro]ihct'-i Predictions Tovcyo's Advent arcs l Ma;;uc H sent upon the T.dlei's Famine and I'esti- leiu'e -lieiin of Acxitl, or To|iilt/in Uehauchery of Kin^', Noltles, and I'ricsis Toki Mis of i)i\ine Wrath Forei;,'n Inva- ders— Final Overthrow of the Toltec Fmpire ■J37 CHAPTER ' THE ciiiciii MEt; I'Knion. ^es night.^ -^^ij assertion that se( ned to clash with ]ireconceived notions of the tea* lings of holy writ or the writings ' Hti affirms (in a work 'itled Christian Topoijraphij) that, according to the triic ortlutilox system t geography, tlie cartii is a qnadrangu Lir piano, extending four hundred d; s' journey eaat and west, and exactly half as nuicli north and south ; ths it is inclosed ])y mountjiins, on wliich the sky rests ; that one on the nort.. i of tlic fatliors was looked upon with dou M atid disfavor. Oarwinism is reversed hv niaiiv of the \ ashiii; L;tini trihes. originally hrmi Klit from Kiiro]ic, as }j;las' liad lieen in use there, moio or loss, friim the year l)(i4, till the Scamliiifi ians colonized Ifeland, Green- liiinl. Ma Jojri' les reclamations oiiv' mcs ,^;jt[i()-i; nw sonlevereiit de divers roll's ct li's sonrircs incrcdulesi|U ell.'s i-)p', '• i"i;i my,- Ics levies de ]ilnsii'iivs lie rios savants dont je respecte et Iioi M.! In the old Welsh annals there is an account of a vo3'ago made in the latter lialf of the twelfth century,^'*'* l)y one Madoc, a son of Owen Gwynedd, prince of North Wales. tl leir lead mir motive was the discovery of the truth, although they were swayed like other writers of their time, and all other times, by the spirit of the age, and by various re- li L^ious, political, and personal ]rejudices. It is not only in Amoi'ican researches, however, that tliis im- perfection prevails. Afterwards they were given, l»v the Culhuas, the district of Tizaapan, which abouiult d in snakes, Hzards, etc., on which chiefly they lived, paying heavy tribute to the king of Culhuacan, and leading- a very hard life for many vears.^ Brasseur, throws much light upon the events (if this })eriod. The services of the followers of Huitzilo- ])(H'ht U were always in demand when there was figlit- iiii^' to 1)0 done. " Tlii Mt' is soiiio rimfiision alxmt tlio jmrciitajxc of Tezdzoiiinc ami .\ aiiiii|ii(litli: Toxcoxtli t'lmusa tiiic lillc (r Acdlniiliiiaiatl duiit il out Tizii/iiiiiiii', (Ml . 'I'liey A\cre Hem a (le;;d •ody and a mass of tilth which the Mexicans, le- ^■- I'ri/fiii. 'J'his is the alliance alhahd te liy '"' een for some years residinn', under the '''ief 'I'enuch. Tezozomoc, and Tonpiemada; as are the addiessrs of advii'c to the new kiny; at his coronation, in A\hiih he was reminded that his position was no siiuciin , l)ut that on him dei)ended the future oreatness of the ^lexicans foretold hy the oods. 'il\o |H tit ion was '^Tanted, the piineess Avaiihcihnatl was "ivtii to Unitzililniitl, and the iollo\vint' Tt noehtitlan received a lai'i,^e accession ol" artists ami skillrd W(»rknien ; while IVom Tezozonioc, who is ,s,ll( 1 1)V Wvtia to have personally visiteil thi' citv at the hirth (tf his i,nands(»n, the Mexii-ans oittanied the iv! Thus the allied powers dis- ciivcivil that 'l\'zii/,(imoc had outwitted them; tliat he had taken Ibr liinisidf in tiie division of territory tht; hnifs share; that Ir had ! states; and tliat -wliilo they liad plained the ein]itv titles of kiiisj^s and associates in the imperial |»o\( ;, they were in reality only i^oveniors, poorly paid tor the lal)t)r of colleetinijf taxes aiul administering^ the m'ovcrnnient. A ])rominent leature of the ceremonies was the rewaid- ing by lanas tiud honors of the chiefs who had distin- i^ Tlio (iiiof i)oint nf diflerctico bctwonn flio •inflioritio H on (liis i |ijvi;.'ii, is tlie loliitivo lioiiur duo t(» the (ii U'i Tciit iillics and It'inltis, «'.s|ii H'ially till' m Iuii'o wliicli the Mexicans and Acoliiiuis rt'siiectivcly ! ('lavi;;oni plat H's this war in 1 and thinks tliat causcwavs wore already hiiilt, N'cytia nixes tliecliitc I notes that the Mexican troo|)s were riehly ejad, while the f Mi-ces of N liualeoyotl wove plain, white ^arnieiits, ami makes the- siej^c lii.- lines wert! All a^xree respectinjj the inferior position of Tlnn- ]ian ami her share of the spoils, hut Ixtlilxochit I, p. mih I Puran make It/coat I supreme, and yivo to Mexico two iliirds iiisicml nf one half of the spoils after dedi H'tiiif X Hio shall' of 'l'laco]tan. Ssf ON or M(t NTEZl MA I.— \E\V Te MI'LES AT Mk XIid - Defeat of the C'iiaixas — Tuoiules with co Cd N- QUEST OF COHUIXCO AND MAZATLAN — FLOOD AND Si X Vl. The Mexicans and Tepanecs approached by wati-r, the Acolhuas by land; they were 'uet by the ( 'haha army, and for several weeks the con Hict raged fiercely without decisive advantage on either side. In his ef Foi"ts to humiliiite one class, (^iiicai) had created another which he could not coiiti-ol by force and which he had zealously educatud tn of the popular cliief's, and his court was ahaudoned hy the Acliihah as it h;id lo Ui'' heeu hy most of the nohles.

l)Ut that others would, tt) any iji^roat extent, share my opinion; that the subject would interest so many classes of readers; that mine would be so (|uickly and cordially rccoij;nized by men of seieiice and letters throuiihout the world as a woriv woith doiny and well done; Jind that it wou M be at once vi ril EFAf'E TO VOLUME V I I uecorded a place in literature, I had not dared to hove. S|iirit of Ii)i|iiiry in the Midilli- A;.'ci Inily liiui Tlu-ni-y 'I'lir I'lui'iii- I'itiii H— Votiiii'N Triivfls -Tin' Carllia^'iiiiaiis Tlic llclnfw 'I'lu'dry - -Till' Moriiiiiii Story -The \'isils of llio Scainliiiaviaii H Celtic «trij,'iii I'lic Wc Uh Scotch Irish The (ircckn ami Koiuiiiis — The Story of Atlantis — The Autochthuiiic Theory 1 CHAPTER II. Orij^iii ami I'.arlicst History of the Americans riireconietl The Park Sea of Aiitii[iiity Itoumlary hetwceii Mylii ami History I'riim- tivo Aiiiials of America eoiii]iarcil with those of the Old World - Aiitiiorilies ami Historical Material Traditional Annals and their \aliie Hiero;;lyidiic Uecords of the Mayas ami Nahnas Spanish Writcr H— The Comineror K - 'l"he Missionaries The Historians- Converted Native Chroniclers Secondary Anthorities l'.thnolo;,'y — Arts, Institutions, and llelicfs Lan^jnajjes Material Monu- ments of Anlii(uity— I'so of Authorities ami Method of Ireatin;; the Sultjeet l.'W CHAPTER III. The fhicliimecs in Amai|nemecan Mij,'ration to Anahnae under Xolotl The Invaders at t'hocoyan and Tollan Fonuilalion of Xoloc anil Tenayocan Xolotl II., l''.m]ieror of the t 'liichimecs — Division of Territory 'i'he Toltecs at Culhnacan Knlc of Xiuli- lenioc Mild Nanhyoll III. Kiii^' flaiiiii'il Minix Tor— • ihiiiiant/in's Virlnrics IJattlo at rdvaiili'laii l;iiiiiant/iii ajjaiii ljii|it'iiir ■rnllcc Institutions at Tt-wuco Kxentsat Ciiliinacan - ^[I'xicans iiri\cii fnun t'luipultfju'c Alliance lictwccn Mcxican H anil Cull Mias Kcli^rioiis Strife I'linniintion of Mexiro Kri^n of tlie l'.rii|M'nca Succeeils in Mex- ico I'nneral of Teclioll Ixtlilxocliitl, Mniperor of tlie (liiclii- niecs . i;('i, L:ii of Tizoe— Nozahnalpilli defeats the Huexotzineas— Ahiiitzot I, Kiiijrof ^^exi(•o ('ain|iaij;i)s for Captives Dedication of lliiitzi- li)l"M'litii's Teiiiiiie -Seventy Tliousand Victims Tot(ii|uiliiiatziu II., Kinj^ of Thicopan Mexican ri;;in of the Mizlecs and Zajiotecs Wixipecoidia Kulcrs of (lajaca The lluaves and Mijes l.iiler Kin;;s and History of Oajaca Wars with Mexico is:) CH. side, linger than the others, by intercepting the rays of the sun, produces night ; and that the plane of the earth is not set exactly horizontally, but witli a little inclination from the north : hence the Euphrates, Tigris, anil other rivers, nnniing southward, are rapid ; but the l««ile, having to run up-hill, has necessarily a very slow current.' Draj-.et'a Covjlict between Jleligio H and /Science, j). Indeed the bible was regarded as the ull- suftieient manual of science, containing all that was necessary to be known, and to inquire further was thought to be prying into the secret things of the njost hiijh.'" The learninj; of the masses consisted not in the acquisition of knowledge, but in the blind and meaningless repetition of prescribed maxinis, in forms of rhetoric, in anything except that which would enlighten the mind and impart wisdom; it was, in short, a systematic course of leading nn-n as far as possible away from the known, and leaving them lost and bewildered in a labyrinth of uncertainty and doubt.^ When, therefore, the questions arose, whence were these new lands peopled? who Indd that animals aiel evei are ilesceni led f roni man. and I'lstotilaud, or Newfoundland.' /' 'c.v.'V Amir, Aiifii/., pp. ',s; pins j'avaii ;' dans mes I'liii K's anu'ricaiiics plus je (Icmeure con ai.'cu is v Mtioiis ipii exisl^r('! The story goes, that after the death of (jwynedd, his sons contended violently for the sov- ereig'nty. The prevailing Wf.'akness of Sjianish writers ( )n Amcr ica IS well known — their religious enthusiasm and strong attachment to church dogmas, which, in v'ew (if some of its consequences, is pronounced at least mistaken zeal even by devoted churchmen of tlio presi'iit day. ( .11 ('Mlllllllc l lav little sli'CHs iii Miii Siiaiiisli tcstiiiniiiics, tnrtiiiic leiil lli M ar |riiiit have cdiiviiiccil us uf llu' lalini-cd falst'liniiil (if aliimst all tli( riial iiari'aticiiis Tlicv wcic so divcstcil of tliosc iniiici pics in- lirii'iii to lioiicst ciic|\iifcfs after truth, that they have ivconled themselves til lie a tiihe of ]iieju(lio('d higutu. As we recede from the present we find men more and more religious, and religiijii has ever been an imperious mistress, brooking no rivalry on tlio ])art of reason, lieliance on su})ersti- tion and prejudice, rather than tacts and reason, is not more noticeal)le jierhaps in works on ancient America than in other old works. It seems that the Aztecs provokid Copil's efforts for their destruction by two raids against Malinalco, which belonged to Culhuacan, and that the IVIexicans treacherously drew the son of Viw- linalxochitl into their power by offering him the jxjsi- tiou of high-priest, according to a pretended revelation of Huitzilopochtli's will. Tlie secret plan of the king w.-is to place the new allies in the front to receive the force of the attack; the heavier tlieir loss the better, for his ti()uj)s would have an easy victory, and a dead Aztec was a much less troublesome neighbor or sub- '" /A/.v/.. Acolnaliuacatl epmisa iiiif lillc ile Coxcoxtli doiit cc pi'iiicc fiiiiit issii. (Ic l.")'_vs (liiiinc Acdlnaliuacafl jioiir jii'rc ii Tc- Z'l Z'iiiiiic, k' Memorial (ic Cullniaiaii Ic doiiiic ]ioiir Ic Ills dc ('o\coxtli ct fivic i LVcaniaipiclitli. ^Fanv, liowever, setth'd at other |i(iiiit-; near at liand on the hdvo sliores and i-'ands, 1 t I this ]»eriod is atti-ihuted alsc theii* inxentioii lilt ("1 nnamnas. Tlie localities thus occujiied at this jveriud, siniul- or sut-cessively, l)esides l/tacalco, were ^[exiialtzinco. The choice of the |iro- ple was ratitied hy kinn'Tezozomocof Azcapuzalco; ami at the same time it is rei)orted that Itzcoatl, a iiatiir,il son of the late kiny^ hy a woman of rank, was ap pointed commander of the Mexican armies. ii(»val ot" the trihute which they ha«l so lony Inn • ilili^cd to j)ay, or, at least, its rednctioii to a nien-ly in Maiiial amount, inchidinij;' a few wild fowl atid fishes thi- rova I tai. 'I'l ii» llint/iiilinill s lir^t ~iin: Vcvtia (•; I'iiii{iituitll/tl, liilll. .;reatly increased the l)urd( n of ta\atii)n throughout the country; tliat, not content with the revenues of his own states, and a nominal triliiite from his co Uean'Ues as a token of their alle- yiai Kv, he claimed two thirds of that IVom oilier '" i Mlilv Di liitl li'lls II slriiii,i.'i' story, to (lie I'l Vi'ct (liiit Tc/uzihihh's "Hii'cis VMTt' iljifi'lrd liijis U llic 1 lillili'cli ill c Mcli |ilii\ iliri', wlni wm-^ llicir l.iii,^'; Mli'll lis rc|ilicil ' Tczii/iiiiu"',' Wire In lie rnrcsx'd iiiiil lliiif |iiirilits rcwiinli Ml; liiit ili DM' liiiit aiiswi Tcil ' Ixllilvncliill,' or ' Ncziiliiiiilcouiti,' "I'll' |iiii III (li'tiili wiilii Mit ini'rcy. Tlie ^lexicans and Tlatehdcas had been promised, moreover, or at least, had exjurtid, an esta! intenileil to lie iinldi- iiilelv |iroion;'eil, ai.d to lioiind future eoniiuests. The i liiif support of the latter opinion is the j;reat proportional j,'rowlli nl iln' Mexican domains in later timen; hut priictically Mexico rccei Ncd iiiin ii TERMS OF THE ALLIANCE. AHs' FAi Mi NE— Conquest of Miztecapan— The Aztecs Conqi'eu riii; PU()VL\LE of Cl ETLAIHTLAN AND REACH THE GULF COAST I'l. Kings ]\[ontezuma and Totoquihuatzin connnanded in ]hi- son; Nezahualcoyotl's forces were under his two ehk^t sons. Two of his sons, Tatayac and Ahytza, joined the Aehihah in tlie icvdh.

The leadinj,^ journals of f:ngland, Franrqjudiced tlian mine, extravagant praise. I'ochotl, Son of Acxitl--('oii(|in'st of Ciilhiiacan Death of Xaidiyotl llnct/in, Kin.^' of t'nlhuacan - Mi^tralioii and Ueception of the Xahnallaca 'i'rilies The Acolhiiiis at Coatlichan and the Tepaiiecs at .\/ca|in/Nonolimicatl, Kin;; of Cnlhnacan IJevoll of N'acanex Deatli of Nojotl 11. Vniihuac at Ue^jinuin); of the Thirtt'enth Century -The .\/lecs siilimit to the Teiianecs Heign CONTENTS. Syinptonis of I (isco Titent l'lan« of Tezo/onioc, the l\'- panee King -Secret ('onncil of Iteliels— Ueli;,'ious 'J'oleration in Tezciu'o ("iinca micccim Is 'l'(iti)i|iiiliiiat/iii mi tlic 'I'liniiic of 'riai'ii|iaii - N('/aliiial|iilli siici'ccils Ni'zaliiialcoytill at 'rozi'iu'o — Hcvolt of Tlati'hilco- Coi Kiui-st of Matlalt/im-o — Di-foat by the Tarasto H— Death of Axayaeatl 4(K) CHAPTER IX. how came these strange animals and plants to exist on a continent cut off by vast oceans frotn the rest of the world? Th 1 some ve'^elai M liunian essence froii 1 w hich the Hist Alll^ were fori 1, was ori'^inally contained in the hodies of animals, who upon heiii;,' suddenly stampeded from their dwellii, ■ mi jded it with the lower forii Ls of aiiimul life, au.l liiially cixi" iied his wuik 20 Oll IGIN or THE AMEUICANS. ' It been supposed,' he writes, 'that a vast tract of land, now suhnier^^ed i KMieatii the waters of tlie Patnlic (Jcean, once connected Asia and Anu'rica, The arf^unicnt.s in favor of tiiis opinion are ]iredicated upon tliat |)ortioii of tile Scriptures, relatiuj^ to tlie "division" of the earth in tlic days of I'elei,', whicli is thou,u;ht to intlicate a physical division, — upon the ainil- o;^ics hetweon tlie I'eruvians, Mexicans and I'dlynesians. upon the dilliculty of accoiintinji in any other manner for tlie presence of some kinds of animals in America.' After del lolishiii}; tiiesc three bases of o])inion, he adds: 'this conjectured terrestrial comninniciition never existed, a eon* elusion substantiated, in some measure, i'arded, in its essential features, as a peculiar and indiu'enous civilization.""^ "If, as I believe," writes Dr Wilson, "the continent was ])e()pled fi'oin Asia, it was necessarily by youn_o-(jr nations. lt, iiiilorii'iircincnt ii Christophe ('olotnh, entre le i\ci,, vran-. raulre cote de Toccaii Alla Mtii|uc, ct plus jc suls |M'isnaili' (|uc li's Scandiiuncs out drt, ii line iicriodc incmc plus rciulcc ipie I'lllc diiiit viis (I'l'of. *''' ' II est impossihle de n' |ioint f'tre frappc de ranalooic (pii existc cii- III' li's idi'cs lirainanii|iies s'la divinilc et Ics passaocs dii J'u/iu/- Viih rid s I'liis iiaiil. Madoc, who was the only peaceahle one among them, determined to leave his distur1)e(l country and sail in search of • iine unknown land where ho might dwell in peace. They believed in the fre([uent miraculous interposition of God in tho work of con- verting the native pagans; in the instrumentality of the devil in tho sjtii'itual darkness jireceding tho Coi Kiuest. The faith of tli D Spaniards renders their conclusions on origin and tlio earliiu' periods of primitive history valueless, but if that were all, the defect would be of slight imi)ort- ance, for it is not likely that the natives kuvw any- thing of their own oi'igin, and the Spaniards had no means not now accessilde of learning anything on that sultject from other sources. His daughter, Azcaxoeliitl, was forced to become the mistress of Quauhtlequetz- qui ; all his nobles were taken prisoners, and a band of Culhuas who came to Tlalcocomocco soon after, weio massacred. Ixtlilxocliitl dit ('jialcmciit (|u'.\caiiiapiclitii (''tait HUM Iri'ic." It/., pj). Ai-atzintitlan, Mixiuhtlan, and Te- iiia/ra Ititl; m. ( hw ot' * '''iii/i'.r C/iiiitiih)., ill llrnnnriir. K F rom this time t JM; M exicaiis ;nv aid to have felt more at their ease, to have | s llnit/iliiiiiiti tiiarriiil a liaiiulilcrnt the (iriiii'fss of ( 'iratlirlian. 'I'liii^ lu'iisluil Uimi Miiid M id' iiiii Dccnt I'liilili Tu. )lishment on the basis of the old Toltcc alii ance, with their own kinowers made open and loud complaint, so far as tlicv dared to tlo so. K.oc's empii'e, so far as it was ever established, is placed by the Abbe Jirasseur in 14*25.^^ ',ii Prince Nezahualcoyctl, after the death (tf liis father, had been joined by a few faithful frii-nds and had succeeded in makin L*' his escape to Tlascala and .1 luexotzinco, wheiv he found the jteoph; and lords tiiie to him, and c(»n I, Kilt; Tiiri/iiriii(ii/ii,{t)\\. 3U7 Tlio confusion among the autlioritios about the cir- cunistances and motives that led to tho iri-partito alliance on the aljove basis, arises chie Hy IVoni tho patriotism of the native authors. NAI, Defeat of the C'ilvlcas -Cami'aicn in Ci extlan— IJiui u oi' Ni:- ZAHUALi'i LLi— Improvements in Tenochtitlan— Emuahsv tk (hi- co Moz Toc— Death of Montezima I. 'J.'lli-7, place in lizcoall's i'i'i;:ii llie oiiuin ol the tid. Another son, Axo([uentzin, only about seven- teen years old, performed prodigies of valor and turned the tide of victory. ])roniisino' tla.'ni all the j)rojerty and titles of tlu' ih.- l)ility in case of success, and heiiiijc proniisi'd in turn the inheritance of the thi'oiie with the ])alaces, sla\ ts, and wealth pertainiii L,'- t])ereto.

On the contrary, it looked as if old-time traditions must give way, the infallibility of revealed knowledge must 1)0 called in question, even the holy scriptures must be interpreted anew. 1 2 ORIGIN OF THE AMERICANS speakiii Gf stranj^^e torjruos, peopled tlie new land; curi- ous plants covered its surface; animals unknown to science roamed throuj^h its immense forests; vast seas separated it from tlie known world; its boundaries were undefined; its whole character veiled in ob- scurity. \sia wa.-* ut- ti'ily uiiliiiown to tlic aiicii Mit Mexicans. However small may have been the number of those first emiii^rants, an equal number . 'I'Ih' ]i Millie (if .\sia sceiii to liavt' lii'cii tlic (iiilv iiicii wlui cimlil ti'acli the Mexicans and Peruvians lo inalvo Inoii/e, aii(\ (■mild not leach them to smelt iuid work ii'on, oiie thousand or one thousand Tno l Mindve(l years liefor(! Corea, and 'larlarv, had eommunieation with Anieiiea. The Kuro 8iwo, or 'black stream,' commonly known as the Japan current, runs north- wards ])ast ilie eastern coast of the Jaj)an islands, tlu'U cur\es round to the east and south, swee[)ing the whole west coast of North America, a l)ranch, or ''11'; i I "'-' Sec I'l'iuirt of iiii|M'r siilmiitti'il liy ^^^ Hrooks to llio Ciilifoiiiiii Acil- ciiiy III' Scii'iici's, ill ,s'. And Freydisa, she who had friglitened the Skiellings, W(^nt to them and proposed tliey shou Ul make a voyage to Vinhmd, and she offered to go with them on condition that an equal share of what tli Ly obtained there shouhl be hers; and they agreed to tiiis. In Cniiilni Hf's ///./i\t.; tin; nnnilx M' six, wiiicii limits tlio voya;,'t' to llie vicinity of tlic Azores. They (the l»oej;s) then wclconied ns to their town, mid ciitcrtaiiicd ns very civilly and cordially f linn Irilisli months, duiiiiu' ^^ hicli I hail the opportunity of eonversin;,' with them faniiliarlv ill the |\v anuua''e, a lid did ])reach to them in the same laii^ lliivc liiuoa week, and they wiiiild confer with me alioiit any tiling' that was diniciili therein, and at our departure they ahiindantly suiiplicd us with ulialcver was necessary to our support and wtdl doiiij;'. "From this discovery, it is evident" — to Mr Pidgeon — "that the soil of Brazil was formerly broken by Ptoleniaios, more than a thousand years before the discovery by Columljus."^^ Brasseur de Bourbourg seeks to identify certain of the American gods with Gieek deities.-^^ Jones finds chat the sculi)ture at Uxinal very closely resembles the Greek style. The value of history taithfully taken from such a source cannot be diiiii)ted, but its vagueness and conflicting statements ivsjiecting dates and details may be best ap})reciated hy ([uestioning intelligent men in the light of nine- tet nth century civilization respecting the details of ii Kxlern history, withholding the privilege of refer- ( ine to books or documents. '^ ."aii, he iinhioed Ids son to conceal hiinsilt' in a tree, tnrned alone npon the enemy, aiul t V-U coven'd with wounds. Maxtla, anotber son, seems t;) lavo had more ability aiu 1 exnerience tl lan Ills brother, but his father feared the conse(|uence of lii.s hasty temj)er and arl)itrary manner, l)y wbitli lie iiad already made a multitude of enemies, A number of juinces and lords were assembled at the royal obsei|uies, ainoni^ them Xezahualcoyotl biiiiscir, against the advit-e of bis friends, but relyiii L;' oa his jifood fortune and on the assurance of a sorcerer in "wlioni be had i^reat faith, that be could not be kill( .1 at that time. The ^Mexicans 1^ *■' An oxtr.'Kinliiiarv treaty is s])()kon of In* Tczozomoo, Diiran, Aciist:! 391 lit'i^'-an to find tlieir condition critical; ^raxtla ox- jxctcd to bo at an early datu in ])sion of tho Aztec strongholds, and deferred until after such suc- cess all ortensive operations against Nezahualcoyotl ; the hesieged Aztecs naturally looked towards the Acijlhua })rince for assistance against their common f(»c. '2'M\, ',\S\-i, KMi-T, 4t; Tirriiiiri'iitiil K, torn. The enijieror personally took no ]»art in the battles that ensued, but placed his greatest general, Atazatl, at the head of bis ai'mies. ,'{0; Miihi/niiii, ill hiizhulvctti, Cii L (/c J)uc,, tom. A (piari'el hetween Tezozomoc and Acdhniztli, rival lords of that city, afforded a sulli- ciciit pretext for sending' thither a ^[exican army; the t(Mn}'ht tire, hy accident as was claimed, and the lord who had received aid could not refuse Montezuma's recpiest lor the now shelterless relics, Avliich were translei-red to their new restin, L'"-[dace 111 lelioch titli m. In; attacked with them many cities and towns of the l*i|)iles ami Zutugils, among them Patulul; and although tlie governoi's of these places made greit elforts to de- JV'iid tlu'in, they were unable to resist the superioi' numbers of the (,()uiches. .\i'ii|iiii/ili, naiiif fur Nc/aliiialrii Niit J, V,, :\~'2: liinl (if Ciiiiliiiiiiar, \..'l(i! Vciiliialiiia)', Mtali^iii, /\/lc(- iiii^ia- lioii.

3 t Trttms- lilt, )' n Muf i OT/l MCO H C L U L A @ 1 m ft'" ff fiif"tn f* • fin llul, r 104 I If; THE NATIVE RACES OF TBI PACIFIC STATES. A problem was placed before them, the solution of which was not to be found in the records of the ancients. Mexican histories do not prohahly go so far liac U. ance," says Gallatin, " I cannot see any possible rea- son that sliould have prevented those, who after the dispersion of mankind moved t( wards the east and northeast, from having- reached the extremities of Asia, and passed over to America, within live hun- dred years after the Hood. It is almost iiroved tliat Ion;; hefore ('(dnniliiis, Northern India, China. -See also: S/iiit/i,si)iiiiiii Ript., IStid, )i, ,'{4."); i'ri/tiif, llisf. There is a cur- rent of cold water setting from the Arcti'* ocean south the east coast of Asia, which dri\es all the Chi- nese wrecks south. Kiulscf'iio cuiitinued his voyage to Greeiihmd, and arrived at Erics Kord." During tlie same summer that Karlsefne returned Irom A'inland, a ship arrived at Greenhmd from Nor- Avav, commanded by two brothers, Helge and Finn- liogo. One of these is the Dightou Rock, of which I liave had occasion to speak before, in connection with the Phoinician theory.'^^^ In 1824, a stone encfraved with ilunic characters was found on the island of Ki ngiktorsoak, on the western coast of Ureenland.'*'^^ Priest is strongly inclined to believe that a glass known." Tliia is simply trifling with the suhjoct. Vtlantie, for he had knowli Mluc of r voyajres to America; and knowle(l;re of them was also |irevalciit in (1. waskin^nf l';ii;;lai III It ill that aue the I'lii Hiish knew little or nothing of Welsh alt'airs in nil a way as to coiuieet them with l'',ii;;iish history very closely.' tliilil- Ai Aiiirr. and took mc up hy the middle, and lidd nie in the Itritish |\'elsli| tongue I should not die, and thci('U|i(in Went to the emperor of 'ruscarora, and ai;reed for my ansom a lid tlu men tliat were with me. This is a hrief re- litiil el my travels anioni; the I )oejr Indians. He knew nothini^ of Wales, but stated that his people had a tradition that their ancestors came to America from a distant country, which lay far to the east, over the great waters. On the handle of one of the hi words was a portrait of Alexander; on the helmet was a beautiful design representing Achilles drag- ging the corpse of Hector round the walls of Troy. It is in tliis light that we must understand the statement of many able writers, that the greater part of our knowletlge of railv American history is traditional, since this knowledge was not obtain, d by an actual examina- ii(n of the records by the Spaniards, but orally from the people, the upper classes of whom had them- srlves read the pictured annals, while the masses wt re somewhat familiar through popular chants and jilavs with their contents. vn out of his last retreat hy " I'rasscur says ('oatlicliaii, wliicli is inure likely. \y a It iiipeiate life and freedom from all excess, in addition tiasures. All communica- tion had been cut off between the cities of the lake and tlie maiidand; many sharp attacks had been made by I tzcoatl on the enemy's lines; but no gen- eral engagement had taken i)lace. j^Iaxtla had an army somewhat smaller than that of his opponents but they fo UL,dit for the most part behind intrenchments. c at Cuitlahuac, an ohject of veneration to all of Tdltcc descent. Cniichiahtulu, who, with the of Lieutenant (Jenei'al, had gained great advantages over the Quiches in the memorahle campaign of I'inar (the one last referred to), having grasped the Zutugil sce})tre, besieged the famous stronghold of Totonica[)an. movements of ( 'hichiahtulu with a formidable army, but enlisting sixty thousand soldiers.



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