Hupa date xex com
An Athapascan tribe formerly occupying the valley of Trinity river, California from south fork to its junction with the Klamath, including Hupa valley.They were first mentioned by Gibbs in 1852; a military post was established in their territory in 1855 and maintained until 1892; and a reservation 12 miles square, including nearly all the Hupa habitat, was set apart in Aug. The population in 1888 was given as 650; in 1900, 430; in 1905, 412.The Hupa took deer also with snares of a strong rope made from the fiber of the iris, or chased them into the water with dogs and pursued them in canoes.Meat was roasted before the fire or on the coals or incased in the stomach and buried in the ashes until cooked, or was boiled in water-tight baskets by dropping in hot stones. Salmon were caught in latticed weirs stretched across the river or in seines or poundnets, or were speared with barbs that detached but were made fast to the pole by lines.The houses of the Hupa were built of cedar slabs set on end, the walls being 4 ft high on the sides and rising to more than 6 ft at the ends to accommodate the slope of the roof, inclosing a place about 20 ft square, the central part of which was excavated to form the principal chamber, which was about 12 ft square and 5 ft deep. They are noted for the beautiful twined baskets produced by the women and the fine pipes and implements executed by the men.The yew bows they used to make, only about 3 ft long, strengthened with sinew fastened to the back with sturgeon glue, were effective up to 75 yards and could inflict serious wound at 100 yards.The position of chief depended on the possession of wealth, which usually remained in the family, causing the chieftainship to descend from father to son.In feasts and dances a division of the Hupa into two parts is manifest, but this division seems to have no validity outside of religious matters.
Powers gave Tashuanta, Sokeakeit (Sokchit), and Meyemma. This was the storehouse for the family goods and the sleeping place of the women. The Hupa depended for food on the deer and elk of the mountains, the salmon and lamprey of the river, and the acorns and other vegetal foods growing plentifully about them.
They are at present self-supporting, depending on agriculture and stock raising.
When they first came in contact with the whites, in 1850, the Hupa were all under the control of a chief called Ahrookoos by the Yurok , whose authority is said to have extended to other peoples southward along Trinity river.
Dried acorns were ground into flour, leached in a pit to extract the bitter taste, and boiled into a mush.
Their arrows, made of syringa shoots wound with sinew, into which foreshafts, of juneberry wood were inserted feathered with three split hawk feathers and pointed with sharp heads of obsidian, flint, bone, or iron, sometimes passed entirely through a deer.The hunter, disguised in the skin of the deer or elk, the odor of his body removed by ablution and smoking with green fir boughs, simulated so perfectly the movements of the animal in order to get within bowshot that a panther sometimes pounced upon his back, but withdrew when he felt the sharp pins that, for the very purpose of warding off such an attack, were thrust through the man’s hair gathered in a bunch at the back of the neck.