In a treaty signed with Italy, a region of modern day Eritrea was ceded in exchange for political support and arms.
The early 20th century was marked by the reign of Emperor Haile Selassie I, who undertook the modernization of Ethiopia from 1916.
The Ethiopian Red Terror, a period of violence, deportations, widespread hunger and genocide from 1977 to 1978 was followed in the 1980s by a series of famines that affected as many as eight million Ethiopians.
Haile Selassie's reign came to an end in 1974, when a Soviet-backed Marxist-Leninist military junta, the "Derg" led by Mengistu Haile Mariam, deposed him, and established a one-party communist state which was called People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia.During the Ogaden War with neighboring Somalia the nation lost the Ogaden region in the north, only regained after receiving military aid from Eastern Europe, North Korea and Cuba.The earliest kingdom, the D'mt, reigned from 700 to 400 BC and was succeeded by the Askumite Empire, which gained prominence in the 1st century CE and declined around the 9th century.Both Ethiopia and its neighbor Eritrea were ruled by the Zagwe dynasty from 1137 to 1270, and after this the Solomnic dynasty, which is the traditional ruling house of Ethiopia.
The nation was briefly occupied by Italy from 1936 to 1941, but was liberated with the assistance of British forces during the East African Campaign, although the Italians continued to fight a guerilla campaign until 1943.In 1952 Haile Selassie orchestrated the federation with Eritrea which he dissolved in 1962, and which instigated the long-lasting Eritrean War of Independence that did not end until 1992.