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However, the picture is complicated by the fluctuations of movement by various cultural groups in the last millennium that has resulted in admixture as well as genetic drift.ABSTRACT: Studies of Native American genetic diversity and population history have been transformed over the last decade by important developments in anthropological genetics.During this time, researchers have adopted new DNA technologies and computational approaches for analyzing genomic data, and they have become increasingly sensitive to the views of research participants and communities.Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Anthropology Volume 45 is October 21, 2016. ABSTRACT: Archaeological evidence of human occupation in Arctic Siberia dates to at least 27,000 years before present (YBP) but the population history of these early inhabitants is not fully understood.
Through extended survey of mitochondrial DNA (mt DNA) diversity in the Nganasan, Yukaghir, Chuvantsi, Chukchi, Siberian Eskimos, and Commander Aleuts, we filled important gaps in previously unidentified internal sequence variation within haplogroups A, C, and D, three of five (A-D and X) canonical mt DNA lineages that defined Pleistocenic extension from the Old to the New World.Overall, 515 mt DNA samples were analyzed via high-resolution SNP analysis and then complete sequencing of the 84 mt DNAs.As new methods are applied to long-standing questions, and as more research is conducted in collaboration with indigenous communities, we are gaining new insights into the history and diversity of indigenous populations.This review discusses the recent methodological advances and genetic studies that have improved our understanding of Native American genomics and population histories.
We synthesize current knowledge about Native American genomic variation and build a model of population history in the Americas.We also discuss the broader implications of this research for anthropology and related disciplines, and we highlight challenges and other considerations for future research.