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The interactive map below and our downloadable database have been expanded with 22 additional cases from 2013-2016.Dating from 2005, the FBI and leading criminologists essentially defined a mass shooting as an attack in a public place in which four or more victims were killed.We adopted that baseline when we gathered data in 2012 on three decades worth of cases.(It bears noting that there have been many similar indiscriminate gun rampages with fewer fatalities that would otherwise be included in our dataset.) In January 2013, a mandate for federal investigation of mass shootings authorized by President Barack Obama lowered that baseline to three or more victims.Forty-seven of these mass shootings have occurred since 2006.We exclude shootings stemming from more conventional crimes such as armed robbery or gang violence.Other news outlets and researchers have published larger tallies that include a wide range of gun crimes in which four or more people have been either wounded or killed.
While those larger datasets of multiple-victim shootings may be useful for studying the broader problem of gun violence, our investigation provides an in-depth look at the distinct phenomenon of mass shootings—from the firearms used to mental health factors and the growing copycat problem.
Tracking mass shootings is complex; we believe ours is the most useful approach.