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Data are the results of an experiment, and are observable and objective rather than subjective.
This article concentrates on the more specific definition. Maintaining organization and conducting life-sustaining processes require an outside source of energy, defined as the capacity to do "work." 2. Reproduction is the ability of every type of organism to give rise to another organism like itself. Bacteria, protozoans, and other unicellular organisms simply split in two (binary fission). Multicellular organisms often unite sperm and egg, each from a different individual, resulting in an immature individual which develops into the adult. The instructions for an organism's organization and development are encoded in genes. Genes are comprised of long molecules of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid); DNA is the genetic code in all living things.
Science as defined above is sometimes termed pure science to differentiate it from applied science, the application of research to human needs.1.1 How to Define Life A. Organization of living systems begins with atoms, which make up basic building blocks called elements. The cell is the basic structural and functional unit of all living things. Different cells combine to make up tissues (e.g., myocardial tissue). Tissues combine to make up an organ (e.g., the heart). Specific organs work together as a system (e.g., the heart, arteries, veins, etc.). Multicellular organisms (each an "individual" within a particular species) contain organ systems (e.g., cardiovascular, digestive, respiratory, etc.). A species in a particular area (e.g., gray squirrels in a forest) constitutes a population. Interacting populations in a particular area comprise a community. A community plus its physical environment is an ecosystem. The biosphere is comprised of regions of the Earth's crust, waters, and atmosphere inhabited by organisms. Each level of organization is more complex than the level preceding it. Each level of organization has emergent properties due to interactions between the parts making up the whole; all emergent properties follow the laws of physics and chemistry. The ultimate source of energy for nearly all life on earth is the sun; plants and certain other organisms convert solar energy into chemical energy by the process of photosynthesis. Food provides nutrient molecules used as building blocks for energy. Metabolism is all the chemical reactions that occur in a cell. All organisms must maintain a state of biological balance, or homeostasis. must be maintained within the tolerance range of the organism. Living things interact with the environment and with other living things. Response often results in movement of the organism (e.g., a plant bending toward the sun to capture solar energy, a turtle withdrawing into its shell for safety, etc.). Responses help ensure survival of the organism and allow the organism to carry out its biological activities. The collective responses of an organism constitute the behavior of the organism.
A binomial name is a two-part scientific name: the genus (first word, capitalized) and the specific epithet of a species (second word, not capitalized). Binomial names are based on Latin and are used universally by biologists. Either the genus name or the specific epithet name may be abbreviated.1.4 The Process of Science A. Biology is the scientific study of life, and it consists of many disciplines. The scientific process differs from other ways of learning in that science follows the scientific method, which is characterized by observation, development of a hypothesis, experimentation and data collection, and forming a conclusion.
Scientists believe nature is orderly and measurable, and that natural laws (e.g., gravity) do not change with time. Natural events, called, phenomena can therefore be understood from observations. Scientists also use the knowledge and experiences of other scientists to expand their understanding of phenomena. Chance alone can sometimes help a scientist get an idea (e.g., Alexander Fleming's discovery of penicillin).
Inductive reasoning allows a person to combine isolated facts into a cohesive whole. A scientist uses inductive reasoning to develop a possible explanation (a hypothesis) for a natural event; the scientist presents the hypothesis as an actual statement. Scientists only consider hypotheses that can be tested (i.e., moral and religious beliefs may not be testable by the scientific method).
The term science also refers to the organized body of knowledge humans have gained by such research. Biochemical evidence suggests that there are three domains: Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya. The domains Bacteria and Archaea contain unicellular prokaryotes; organisms in the domain Eukarya have a membrane-bound nucleus. The prokaryotes are structurally simple but are metabolically complex. Archaea can live in water devoid of oxygen, and are able to survive harsh environmental conditions (temperatures, salinity, p H). Bacteria are variously adapted to living almost anywhere (water, soil, atmosphere, in/on the human body, etc.).
Most scientists maintain that scientific investigation must adhere to the scientific method, a process for evaluating empirical knowledge under the working assumption of methodological materialism, which explains observable events in nature as a result of natural causes, rejecting supernatural notions. In natural selection, members of a species may inherit a genetic change that makes them better suited to a particular environment. These members would be more likely to produce higher numbers of surviving offspring.3. Biodiversity is the total number of species, their variable genes, and their ecosystems. Extinction is the death of a species or larger group; perhaps 400 species become extinct every day. The continued existence of the human species is dependant on the preservation of ecosystems and the biosphere.1.3 How Living Things Are Classified A. From smaller (least inclusive) categories to larger (more inclusive), the sequence of classification categories is: species, genus, family, order, class, phylum, kingdom, domain. The species within one genus share many specific characteristics and are the most closely related. Species in the same kingdom share only general characteristics with one another.